In this Section we have tried to formulate as possible short and clear the essence of our idea of a decent civil society building. Here we offer a summary of all major sections of the New philosophy. This Section is intended for those, who have no time or possibility for a long study of all the Project chapters, who would prefer to see a concise text to have a clear understanding of the proposed model.
Visitors whishing to understand in more detail the New philosophy model are welcome to the Chapter ‘Principles of state political structure’
The basis of New philosophy, i.e. the basis of the proposed society consists in the following: Everyone shall have the right of state government, however not everyone can obtain it, but only those who personally wish to be engaged in it and are eager to study for the purpose. This right should not only be honourable, but it shall grant the person certain advantages over those possessing no such right. A person may lose the right of state government for certain offenses.
The New philosophy is based on understanding that the right of state government, i.e. the right to vote, shall be granted to a person not by the right of succession, neither upon reaching certain age, nor by any other parameters. The whole New philosophy is based on understanding that the society shall apply certain procedure accessible to any person, which would allow him at his own discretion voluntarily, not depending on anybody, to pass a process of education and to pass examinations for the right of state government.
Generally, so far as the citizenship, besides the right to vote, supposes many other things, it would be correct to divide these two categories of people to ‘citizens’ and ‘citizens having the right of state government’. Still, as we talk here about the building a model of a new civil society, and we say that notion ‘Citizen’ should be treated with respect, the New philosophy should style these two categories of people as: ‘resident’ and ‘citizen’.
Principle 1: Resident is any person living in the state. Any resident has the right to obtain civil rights. Citizen is a resident, who has obtained the right of state government.
Principle 1.1: The right to become a citizen shall not to be granted to a person simply on reaching certain age or by the right of succession.
Hereby proposed: any resident of state who has reached lawful age and acquired a special additional education and passed examinations, at least including the disciplines: fundamentals of political science, fundamentals of philosophy, fundamentals of history of the state and the right, fundamentals of jurisprudence, fundamentals of economics, fundamentals of state government, fundamentals of conducting election campaigns, can become a citizen. The second part of examination for citizenship should include an examination for the knowledge of no less than 80 % from the approved list of musical, literature and art works pertaining to the world culture treasury.
No one would insist that tax reduction would always lead to improvement of economic situation, sometimes it is a populist method of coming to power. It means that the person participating in voting should understand the fundamentals of economics, as a minimum. To distinguish, where the voter is offered a primitive PR and where the candidate speaks the naked truth – one should know the fundamentals of conducting election campaigns. If one candidate suggests to construct a Moscow-Kostroma high-speed railway, while another offers a Moscow-Irkutsk project, the citizen should know the geography, in order to have at least a little idea of the country scales and possible construction projects. Similarly, the citizen should have at least a minimum understanding of fundamentals of other sciences required for knowledgeable voting.
The planet history is written in two paths: the first path is a politico-economical history with histories of wars, assassinations, changes of political systems, technical progress, etc. The second part of history makes its culture and art. The person participating in voting, i.e. coming to govern the state, shall understand the value of historical heritage, the significance of museums and theaters.
Principle 2: The citizen should have more rights compared to common residents:
· Only the citizen shall have the right to be elected;
· Only the citizen shall have the right to hold public posts above the defined ones, for example, the head of department. (The system similar to the USSR system, where members of the party only had the right to occupy posts above the defined ones);
· Only the citizen shall have the right to be the head of any public institution (including schools, polyclinics, etc.)
· Irrespective of form of ownership and business type, only the citizen shall have the right to hold office with number of subordinates more than 50 or a post with the right of disposition of money resources more than the defined sum.
· At that, all other rights, such as the right to work, the right of education, the right of defense, the right to medical care, for the resident and the citizen should be absolutely equal.
· As absolutely mandatory there shall be applied a provision stating that the former citizens shall have no additional rights and/or obligations in comparison with a common resident.
Principle 3: Apart from additional rights the citizen shall have additional obligations.
Similar to the state’s obligation of certain functions execution: to provide health care, to protect, the citizen shall participate in the state government, i.e. he shall cast his ballot in elections. For systematic absence at elections, for example, failure to attend 3 of 4 voting procedures successively, the citizen shall be deprived of civil rights with all the consequences that come with it (for example, dismissal from a post). The person may resign his civil rights himself or can be deprived under court decision.
When realized, this principle will provide the percent of active voters close to 100 %, thus possible manipulations of elections will come practically to naught.
Principle 4: The society shall treat obtaining of citizenship as an honourable act, and its deprivation - shameful for a person.
This principle is intended to guarantee the responsibility of person for the civil rights. It should not be simple to deserve the ‘citizen’ rank, to lose it - quite probable, while the respect for the ‘citizen’ notion should be brought up from the very childhood. To raise higher the significance of the ‘citizen’ notion, it is possible to introduce, for example, a norm under which the government can award the person with citizenship to for some special merits.
Principle 5: 5 years after the service termination (in 99 % cases from 100 it is 5 years after retirement) the person should lose civil rights automatically.
For today there’s no such technology, and it is unlikely to appear in the future, which would guarantee a separation of those incapable to think and vote adequately, or who is already got weak owing to the age. Two statements seem to be obvious: 1) human brains work well only being trained permanently; 2) any elderly or not very adequate old person, most likely, will be off pensioned. Therefore we would propose the following: to deprive of civil rights those who has retired 5 years ago, i.e. the working pensioner, who in due time has received citizenship even if he is over 100 years old, for example a high school professor - has the right to vote. A pensioner not working anywhere for 5 years should honourably transfer his right to the young ones.
Obviously, the career-oriented persons will have to obtain citizenship. It means, the percent of citizens in ratio to non-citizens will be high enough - not less than 20 %. As a matter of fact, here we observe a formation of a new supervising layer – a new elite, which will define the development of mankind. These will be the persons of education, mainly of age ranging from 22 to 65, i.e. the most active age. Besides, these people will have good background in culture and art. Since long it is known that for educated and cultural persons the system of values is shifted from monetary priorities towards spiritual ones.
On top of that this model has solved one more fundamental problem: the elite, once formed up, as time goes on always tries to barrier itself from ingress of ‘undesired’ people. As a result, the elite at first ‘is preserved’, and later it degenerates. In the proposed model the elite is a mass of people being constantly replaced, each one of them makes an independent solution on joining the elite, and nobody can prohibit him from that, and in the end of life he leaves the elite automatically.
PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLITICAL STRUCTURE
The basis of society existence is a system of its government. The principle of the civil society structure describes only a small part of the government system. The rest part is a description of the state political structure, i.e. how many branches of government act in the state, their function, their interaction, how people come to the power and how they leave.
Let's formulate the main conditions, the system of state government should observe to avoid further destabilizing of political system and possible collapse of state:
1. A procedure of people coming to the power should be the main, so that only the most experienced, fair, reasonable, decent people certainly possessing the art of government could be promoted step by step to every higher level. In this system it will not be of much importance who personally will reach the top, because in any case there will be the most worthy ones.
2. Every slightest possibility of ‘imperial’ state ruling style shall be eliminated, because sooner or later such possibility always leads to usurpation of power.
Now we will consider the way it can be realized.
First, we will define, how many power branches should there be. 2 branches will not be enough, because there will be a rivalry ‘who’s more powerful’, meanwhile to have 4 or more will be unpractical.
So, there should be 3 power branches: executive, legislative and judicial (since mankind has already come to this optimal scheme), provided they are really independent from each other.
It is reached by three rules:
1. Each branch of power should be elected at all levels.
Heads of executive and judicial authority, as well as the legislative branch of all levels should be approved through a direct general voting. All branches of power should undergo the election procedure, only this will provide their genuine equality.
2. Two branches of power are more powerful than the third one.
That is, for example, if the governor of region has begun activities obviously damaging the regional economy, a joint solution of the judicial panel and the legislative assembly of the region can point out to inadmissibility of such activities, up to decision-making on removal of the governor from his office. The same refers to other branches of power. It will strengthen the equality of branches of power, eliminate the uncontrollability of activity of any branch of power during the elective period and allow us to have one more degree of civil control over the activity of power and its separate representatives. This will actually eliminate any possibility of ‘imperial’ ruling scheme.
3. Transfer from one branch of power to another one without level lowering shall be prohibited.
When working in the State Duma, it will not be possible to leave for the work in the Government of Russia, but only for the work in the Government of a Federal subject. Actually, it is a direct prohibition for merging of powers, and namely this guarantees the independence of branches of power from each other.
Apart from that, additional barriers for elective positions shall be applied:
1. Voting in any branch of power should be held only under personal lists, i.e. only for concrete persons.
People should clearly understand, who they vote for. In no case it will mean the end of parties existence. The fact that a certain person is a member of a certain party should serve him as plus or minus in elections, but in no way this will be a dominating parameter.
2. Climbing a career ladder should be similar to the army system, a higher post can be held only after all the lower positions have been passed.
For every position a list of subordinate posts should be defined, no running in the election would be possible, if such positions have not been passed. People should have a chance to see the results of the person’s work in the previous offices for they could reasonably judge, whether this person could be deputed to a higher office.
3. The election system (2х4) + (2х4) should be applied.
Every citizen should have the right to be elected twice to the same position. It happens, the person is very good in the office and people with pleasure would give him a chance to continue holding a responsible post. Such persons should be given the right to stay in the office once again. For this purpose in the end of the 8-year period a referendum should be held with a question, whether citizens grant him the right to stand for 2 periods once again. If he is granted such a right, he can stand for 2 periods once again. If citizens grant him no such right, it means he is not trusted and should be deprived the right to stand for any elected positions within the next 10-year period. In any case it would be inexpedient to give a chance to hold one position for more than 16 years. After such period the head of office even physically would not be able to introduce something new, let him make way for the young.
4. Only professionals may work in every branch of power.
No one would dispute the fact that the hospital should be run by a medical man, and the school by a teacher. However, for some reason any Tom, Dick or Harry may be elected to the power. The principle: ‘every kitchen maid can rule the state’ shall have to become a thing of the past! Mayors, governors, let alone the President, should have an administrative background, deputies and judges – legal education, as a minimum.
5. In any branch of power, only a person, who had resided in the related territory for no less than 10 years, can become a candidate.
The person going to run for the power should know the territory. This requirement provides no guarantee, but it gives a hope that the candidate would treat the territory with care and reason.
6. Heads of all branches of power of all levels of power shall bear personal responsibility before all related residents for the solutions made and their consequences.
If the published law, or the management of territory, or a concrete court decision was wrong and has led to severe consequences, for example, unfair placement in custody, misuse of funds, or, which is even worse, to armed conflicts, the managers in charge for this solution shall be held responsible to the fullest extent of the law for their consequence, including the financial and criminal ones.
The principle of legislature power formation shall be corrected:
Every legislative body should be elected by two equal-quantitative directions: 1) representatives from the territories falling under the precinct area, 2) representatives of various trades and/or fields of activity of the person under the lists provided by political parties. The list of trades and/or fields of activity of the person, from which the candidates will be elected, shall be approved before the elections by a higher-level legislative assembly. The list of trades of the state supreme legislative body shall be approved by the very supreme legislative body of the state. An open direct personal voting in the related territory shall be held under both lists. One and the same citizen cannot run elections under two lists.
Every resident, citizen, public organization or association should have a possibility of legislative initiative. For this purpose, they should know precisely the deputy they may address their initiative to. That is why a half of the deputies should be elected from one-mandate districts: each person should have a known representative in the legislative branch of power.
Now, let's recollect how the work of legislative body is organized. Laws are adopted at the moment of voting by all legislators simultaneously, but framing of Laws is made in the committees and commissions, which are arranged by a professional principle, for example, the commission on building, ecological committee. It is obvious that legislators should represent as much as possible wide spectrum of trades. What makes us to have in the State Duma 20 bankers, 15 sportsmen and 10 singers? It would be quite enough to have one of every trade.
Therefore, in the main legislative body of the country - in the State Duma all trades should be presented to the maximum. Coming to the lower level of legislature, it is obvious, the number of deputies decreases. For example, there can be only 10 deputies in a district. Then, it is vital to define the most important directions of activity of such municipal entity, and to run election of deputies by these directions. For example, for a small town it may be a representative of township-forming enterprise, a teacher, a doctor, an economist, a road worker. Lists of trades, serving as an election base, should be drawn up in the territory, and be approved by a higher body, for example, the list of trades from a town will be drawn up by the town authorities, and will be adopted at the meeting of the regional Duma.
The method of voting in elections shall be modified, as well:
The form of bulletin should be changed: two graphs AYE and NAY should be placed against each candidate’s name. Every voter shall have the right to vote pro only one candidate and an unlimited number of times against any number of candidates.In case if by result of voting some candidate has got over 40 % of negative votes from the total voters, he shall lose the right to run in election for any position for the next 10 years.
Very often in elections one candidate wins against another with a minimum advantage literally in some percent of votes.
However, if we recollect the presidential elections in Russia 1996, when Yeltsin and Zyuganov competed hard, we will recollect that almost half of the society was against Yeltsin and the other half was against Zyuganov. One may wonder, whether a candidate has the right to hold a high supervising position, if the big percent of population discredit him categorically? I'm afraid not.
Such voting technique would help to eliminate any possible social strain after elections, and would solve the matter of graph ‘Against all candidates’ automatically - it will not be needed, the citizen has the right to tick the box in the graph NAY against each candidate.
This will be a real democracy!
Only persons of education, culture and intellect will take part in the major process of state government - the elections. From their number only the best will acquire the right to stand for elections for responsible posts. And only the most worthy will have the possibility to rise upward.